前回、中国語イディオム:成语故事;日本語とも馴染みが深い四字熟語を覚えて中国語会話の表現力をアップしよう!で成語、四字熟語を紹介しました。今回ご紹介するのは、中国語の歇后语(xiēhòuyǔかけ言葉、しゃれ言葉)です。殆どの方が聞いたことがないと思いますが、歇后语は故事成語の要素も含まれた、ウィットに富んだなぞなぞのようなもので、中国の長い歴史、伝統、民族性に裏打ちされた奥深さがあります。そのため、歇后语は、中国語の学習がある程度進んで来た人でないと分からないとは思います。しかしだからこそ表現をブラッシュアップするのに最適であるとも言えます。例えば、张飞穿针——粗中有细(張飛の針仕事--荒っぽさの中にある繊細さ)老虎嘴上拔胡子——找死(虎のヒゲを抜く--死ぬ;転じて大胆という意味)。また、一種のダジャレのようなものもあって、和尚打伞——无法(发)无天hé shàng dǎ sǎn——wú fǎ(fā)wú tiān 和尚さんが傘を差す--神も仏も恐れぬ大胆不敵、といった具合です。以下に挙げる歇后语は、古いバージョンのiOSで掲載されていたのですが、現在は削除され該当するものが見当たらないことと、現在は読者の皆様に紹介出来そうな良いアプリが存在していないため、学習者の利便を図ることを目的として掲載をさせて頂きます。(一つ一つの成語の簡単な由来と、英語での説明が含まれています。)

 

尚、日本の故事成語では馴染みがないものの、 中国でよく使われる成語( 刻舟求剑、对牛弹琴、愚公移山etc..)重要な成語は大体含まれていますので、中国語会話表現のアップと語彙力増強のため、是非ご一読されることをお奨めします!(後程ピンインも徐徐に付加予定。)また、中国語の歇后语(かけ言葉)を理解するには、背景知識が不可欠となります。普段から中国の歴史や三国志西遊記等のストーリーをよく調べておけば、勉強の味わいが深くなり、成語や歇后语の理解度が増すことでしょう。

 

※張飛について知らない方は下記リンクを参照

張飛とは?コトばんく

【三国志 Three Kingdoms】激アツ_一騎打ちシーン(張飛・馬超)

 

※猪八戒について知らない方は下記リンクを参照

猪八戒とは?コトばんく

中国人が想定する猪八戒

日本のドラマ西遊記の猪八戒

ついでに西遊記のキャラクター達が持つ武器について

 

以下100 Chinese Sayings(現在はAppstore 削除済)から転載。

 

1:矮子爬楼梯——步步登高
ǎi zǐ pá lóu tī——bù bù dēng gāo
A dwarf climbing a ladder – becoming higher with each step.

 

个人矮的人想高一些,有一个很好的办法,就是爬梯子,爬一步高一步,这就是步步登高。
这个歇后语用来比喻人的官职、地位等由低到高步步提升;也比喻人的生活越来越好,或成绩不断提高。

 

A good way for a dwarf to get taller is to climb a ladder. Each step will make him look more exalted. This expression means rising in rank or position step by step. It can also refer to the improvement of one’s life or accumulation of achievements.

 

2:八仙过海——各显神通
bā xiān guò hǎi——gè xiǎn shén tōng
The Eight Immortals cross the sea – each displaying his or her special prowess.

 

八仙是道教传说中的八个神仙:汉钟离、张果老、韩湘子、铁拐李、吕洞宾、曹国舅、蓝采和、何仙姑。有一次,八仙一同渡过大海。渡海时,他们各自显示出一套神奇的本事。

 

这个歇后语用来比喻做某种事时,各人有各人的一套办法;或者各人施展各人的才能,互相比赛。

 

The Eight Immortals of Taoism in Chinese folklore: Han Zhongli, Zhang Guolao, Han Xiangzi, Tieguai Li, Lu Dongbin, Cao Guolao, Lan Caihe and He Xianggu. Once when they were crossing the sea together, they soared over it, each using his or her magic power.

 

This allegory is used to describe individuals who vie with each other by showing thier special abilities, or each of them has a unique way to accomplish a task.

 

3:半天空里挂口袋——装疯(风)
bàn tiān kōng lǐ guà kǒu dài——zhuāng fēng(fēng)
Hanging a bag in mid-air – holding the wind (feigning madness).

 

这是一个谐音的歇后语。在半空中挂上一个大口袋,能有来干什么呢?只能又来装风。疯与风同音,装风就变成装疯。
装疯指一个人故意装疯癫痴呆的样子。

 

When a bag is hung in mid-air, what can it hold? Only the wind. In Chinese, to hold the wind (装风) and to feign madness (装疯) sound the same. This refers to someone who pretends to be insane.

 

4:半夜里偷桃吃——找软的捏
bàn yè lǐ tōu táo chī——zhǎo ruǎn de niē
Stealing peaches at midnight – picking only the soft ones.

 

生桃子不好吃,又酸又硬。成熟了的桃子都是软的,很甜很好吃。假如有一个人,半夜里去偷桃子,看不清哪个熟了哪个没熟,只能能先捏一捏,软的桃子就成熟了。
这个歇后语又来比喻专门欺负弱小者,也就是欺软怕硬。

 

The raw peaches, hard and sour, are unpleasant to the taste, while ripe ones are normally soft and sweet. Imagine a person stealing peaches at mid-night in darkness. He can only go by feel to find the soft ones.

 

This is a way of describing those who bully the weak and cringe before bullies.

 

5:扁担没扎——两头失塌
biǎn dān méi zā——liǎng tóu shī tā
A shoulder pole carelessly loaded – both loads will fall off.

 

扁担是用来挑东西的一种简单的工具。扁担的两端如果不扎住,挑起重担,两头的东西就会滑下去,叫做两头失塌。
这个歇后语又来比喻本想得到两个收获,结果却是两头空。

 

When the loads at the ends of a shoulder pole are not attached properly, they will fall off.
This expression is used to allude negatively to those who want to kill two birds with one stone, only to lose both birds eventually.

 

6:搽粉进棺材——死要面子
chá fěn jìn guān cái——sǐ yào miàn zǐ
Putting make-up on before entering the coffin – saving face even when dying.

 

人快要死了,还要往脸上涂脂抹粉,再睡到棺材里去。
这个歇后语用来比喻条件不够时,还要维护自己的体面;或者极力装扮自己,掩盖丑恶的面目。

 

Some people, even on their death beds, still adorn themselves in order to look their best to the last.
This saying is used to satirize someone who is in disgrace or has something to be ashamed of but tries desperately to save face, or someone who tries hard to cover his ugliness or scandal by decking himself out.

 

7:茶壶里煮饺子——倒不出来
chá hú lǐ zhǔ jiǎo zǐ——dào bù chū lái
Boiling dumplings in a teapot – no way to get them out.

 

茶壶肚子大,口小。饺子放到茶壶里去煮,煮熟了,但因为口太小,饺子到不出来。
这个歇后语用来比喻有的人肚子里有很多学问,或者很想讲话,但是又不善于讲话,不能够把他的学识或想讲的很好地表达出来。

 

A teapot has a big belly but a narrow spout. When dumplings are boiled in it, one cannot pour them out through the spout like tea. This idiom is used to describe a poor speaker who, despite all his learning and ideas, can’t express himself eloquently.

 

8:城门里扛竹竿——直进直出
chéng mén lǐ káng zhú gān——zhí jìn zhí chū
Carrying a pole through a city gate – in and out in a straight line.

 

竹竿很长, 城门很窄。在城门里扛竹竿,只能直着进去直着出来,不能拐弯。
这个歇后语主要用来比喻说话办事不拐弯抹角,直截了当。有时也比喻说话办事粗心、简单。

 

As a pole is comparatively long and a city gate is narrow, one can only carry the pole straight in order to get through the gate. This is a commendatory saying when referring to someone who is outspoken and comes straight to the point. However, it is derogatory when used to describe someone who is simply hasty and careless in speech or in action.

 

9;窗户上的纸——一捅就破
chuāng hù shàng de zhǐ——yī tǒng jiù pò
Paper window panes – torn by a touch.

 

在玻璃还没制造出来以前,人们普遍使用很薄的纸来糊窗户。薄薄的窗户纸,只要手指轻轻一戳就破了。
这个歇后语比喻稍加指点就明白了。

 

Before glass was invented, people in China used thin paper as window panes. Even a light touch could make a hole in the paper. This expression indicates something which can be understood with a mere indication.

 

10:打破砂锅——问(璺)到底
dǎ pò shā guō——wèn(wèn)dào dǐ
Breaking an earthenware pot – cracking down to the bottom (getting to the root of the matter).

 

这是一个谐音歇后语。璺是陶瓷、玻璃等器具上的裂痕。沙锅一打破,就从上面裂到底下,即璺到底。问和璺同音,璺到底变成问到底。
这个歇后语用来比喻追问一件事情,寻根刨底,非要弄清楚不可。

 

A crack in glassware or earthenware in Chinese, 璺, is pronounced the same as 问, to ask. So a crack in a broken earthenware pot which extends to the bottom 璺到底 sounds like 问到底, to question closely or to get to the root of the matter. This metaphor is often used to describe one’s determination to inquire deeply into something so as to get the final answer to a problem.

 

11:大姑娘坐花轿——头一回
dà gū niáng zuò huā jiào——tóu yī huí
A girl sitting in a bridal sedan chair – the very first time.

 

按照过去的风俗,姑娘出嫁时都要坐花轿。坐花轿这件事对每一个姑娘来说,都是第一回。
这个歇后语用来比喻第一次做某件事情,缺乏经验。

 

Traditionally, a bride was carried in a special sedan chair to the groom’s home. So this was a first-time experience for every girl. This allegory is used to refer to the first time one does something, implying a complete lack of experience.

 

12:大热天穿棉袄——不是时候
dà rè tiān chuān mián ǎo——bù shì shí hòu
Wearing a padded coat on a hot day – out of season.

 

冬天是穿棉袄的季节。如果一个人,在大热天里穿着棉袄,这个人是实在不太合时宜了。
这个歇后语用来比喻说话、做事选择的时间不合适。

 

If a padded coat is worn in summer instead of winter, it is most inappropriate. This expression is used to satirize untimeliness in speech or in action.

 

13:大水冲了龙王庙——一家人不认一家人
dà shuǐ chōng le lóng wáng miào——yī jiā rén bù rèn yī jiā rén
The temple of the Dragon King washed away by a flood – not recognizing one’s kinsman.

 

龙王是传说中住在水域里的最高的神。龙王庙是供奉龙王的庙宇。发大水是归龙王管的。大水冲倒龙王庙是自家人不认识自家人的可笑结果。
这个歇后语用来比喻自己方面的人,由于相互不了解而发生误会或冲突。

 

In Chinese mythology, the god who controlled water was the Dragon King. So it would be ironic if a temple dedicated to the Dragon King should be destroyed by a flood. This idiom is often cited when people of the same party or side misunderstand or conflict with each other.

 

14:刀尖上翻筋斗——玩命
dāo jiān shàng fān jīn dǒu——wán mìng
Turning somersaults on knives – playing with one’s life.

 

翻筋斗应该在地上翻,假如有人为了逞能,要在刀尖上去翻筋斗,这不是拿生命开玩笑吗?这就叫玩命。
这个歇后语用来比喻去干非常冒险的事,随时可能丧失生命。

 

Normally one turns somersaults on the ground. So when someone tries to show off by turning somersaults on knives, he is simply gambling with his life. This expression describes someone who risks his life needlessly.

 

15:电线杆当筷子——大材小用
diàn xiàn gān dāng kuài zǐ——dà cái xiǎo yòng
Using telephone poles as chopsticks – putting much material to petty use.

 

中国人吃饭习惯有筷子。筷子是两根细长的竹棍或木棍。如果把又粗又大的电线杆当筷子用,那岂不是大材料派小用场了吗?
这个歇后语多用来比喻人事安排上不合理, 把有突出才能的人安排去干一般的工作,以致才能不能得到充分的发挥。

 

Chopsticks are thin pieces of wood or bamboo, easy to manipulate with the hands. If huge poles were to be used for chopsticks, it would be a sheer waste of material. This idiom is mostly to refer to an unreasonable arrangement of personnel, i.e. sending a talented person to do a minor job, so that his talent is wasted.

 

16:擀面杖吹火——一窍不通
gǎn miàn zhàng chuī huǒ——yī qiào bù tōng
Using a rolling pin to blow a fire – totally impenetrable (a complete ignoramus).

 

擀面杖是擀面用的木棍,实心的,中间没有通气孔。用擀面杖去吹火,当然不能把火吹旺。窍就是窟窿、孔洞。
一窍不通也是个成语,一般指对某种事物或某种技术一点也不懂,完全外行。

 

A rolling pin is a solid wooden stick used to roll dough. Since it does not have a hole, it naturally cannot be used to blow a fire. 窍 means hole or cavity. 一窍不通 is an idiom, meaning totally ignorant of a thing or a trade.

 

17:高射炮打蚊子——小题大做
gāo shè páo dǎ wén zǐ——xiǎo tí dà zuò
Killing a mosquito with a cannon – making a mountain out of a molehill.

 

高射炮是用来打飞机的。几只小小的蚊子,却用高射炮向它们射击,这真是小问题大力气。
小题大做的意思是:把小事情当做大事情来做,太不值得。

 

A cannon is used to hit something huge, certainly not something as small as a mosquito. This idiom is used to mean making a fuss over trifle or giving too much importance to something small.

 

18:隔年的皇历——过时了
gé nián de huáng lì——guò shí liǎo
Last year’s almanac – out of date.

 

口语上把历书叫皇历。一年一本皇历,新的一年到来,隔了一年的皇历就过时不用了。
这个歇后语用来比喻过时的事情,再没有用了。

 

皇历 is often used colloquially to mean an almanac or calendar. When a year has passed, its calendar becomes useless. This idiom is used to describe something out of date and no longer having any practical value.

 

19:狗拿耗子——多管闲事
gǒu ná hào zǐ——duō guǎn xián shì
A dog catching a mouse – poking one’s nose into other people’s business.

 

耗子就是老鼠。捉老鼠本来是猫的事情,狗去捉老鼠,显然是多管闲事。
这个歇后语用来比喻做与自已无关的,多余的事,或做不应该做的事情。

 

It is a cat’s business to catch mice, not a dog’s. This idiom is used to describe interference in someone else’s affairs.

 

20:狗撵鸭子——呱呱叫
gǒu niǎn yā zǐ——guā guā jiào
A duck chased by a dog – quacking at the top of its vioce.

 

撵是追赶的意思。狗追赶鸭子的时候,鸭子就会发出呱呱呱的喊声。
呱呱叫在口语中用来形容极好,非常好,有夸奖的意思。本事大,能力强,事情做得很完美等,都可以用呱呱叫来形容。

 

撵 means to chase after or to drive away. When a dog is running after a duck, the duck will quack loudly 呱呱呱. “呱呱叫” in colloquial Chinese is often used to describle something excellent or someone who is very skillful and can accomplish something perfectly.

 

21:狗咬刺猬——无处下手
gǒu yǎo cì wèi——wú chǔ xià shǒu
A dog snapping at a hedgehog – having nowhere to bite.

 

刺猬是一种全身长着硬刺的小动物。刺猬遇到敌人时,便立刻缩成一团,像一个带刺的球一样。狗想咬刺猬,可是无论怎样也找不到下口的地方。

这个歇后语用来比喻做某种事情无从着手。

 

When a hedgehog meets an enemy, it rolls into a ball and shows its spines. So it is impossible for the enemy to bite without being hurt. This allegory means not knowing where to start or being in no position to accomplish something.

 

22:狗咬吕洞宾——不识好人心
gǒu yǎo lǚ dòng bīn——bù shí hǎo rén xīn
A dog bitting Lu Dongbin – not being able to recognize a kind-hearted man.

 

吕洞宾是民间传说中的八仙之一。他常常帮助和救济别人,得到人们的喜爱。狗不认识吕洞宾这位仙人,把他当做坏人去咬,所以说它不识好人心。

这个歇后语用来比喻把别人的一片好心当做恶意,好坏不分。

 

One of the Eight Immortals, Lu Dongbin, often helped people, especially when they were in dire straits, so he was very popular. For a dog to bit Lu Dongbin would be to make a serious mistake. This idiom is used to describe mistaking kindness for ill-intent.

 

23:狗坐轿子——不识抬举
gǒu zuò jiào zǐ——bù shí tái jǔ
A dog sitting in a sedan chair – unable to appreciate a favor.

 

轿子是从前的一种交通工具,方形,用竹子或木头制成,两边各有一根杆子,有人抬着走它和举着它。
不识抬举的意思是:不领会或着不接受别人对自己的好意。

 

A sedan chair was used by important people. If a dog were to ride in a sedan chair, it would not appreciate the privilege. 不识抬举 is an idiom, meaning unable to appreciate someone’s kindness or favor.

 

24:棺材里伸手——死要钱
guān cái lǐ shēn shǒu——sǐ yào qián
A hand stretched from a coffin – asking for money even when dead.
向人伸手,就是要钱的意思。已经装进棺材的死人,还向人伸出一只手,这不是死要钱吗?
死要钱形容贪财入迷,死了也不忘发财。讽刺唯利是图的人。

 

When a beggar stretches out his hand, he is asking for money. If a dead person lying in coffin stretches out his hand to people, this can be interpreted as an excessively desperate gesture. 死要钱 means being overly greedy for money.

 

25:韩信点兵——多多益善

hán xìn diǎn bīng——duō duō yì shàn

Han Xin commanding troops – the more the better.

 

韩信是汉朝刘邦手下的一名大将。将兵是带兵的意思。韩信擅长带兵,他认为,打仗时兵带得越多越好,有利于作战。

多多益善的意思是越多越好。这个歇后语比喻做事人越多越好,或使用的东西越多越好。

 

Han Xin was a famous general under Liu Bang, the first emperor of the Han Dynasty. When other people were afraid that too many troops were hard to control, Han Xin held confidently that the more troops he could command, the more advantages he had in a battle. 多多益善, the more the better, refers favorably to both the number of people and items one can use to do a job.

26:和尚打伞——无法(发)无天
hé shàng dǎ sǎn——wú fǎ(fā)wú tiān
A monk holding an umbrella – having neither hair (law) nor sky (providence).

 

这是个谐音的歇后语。和尚没有头发,所以说无发。法和发同音,即无法。 和尚打着伞,伞遮住了天,和尚打伞就是有无法又无天。
无法无天的意思是:不受法律的约束,毫无顾忌地胡作非为。

 

This is a pun. Monks shave their heads (发, hair, is pronounced the same as 法,law). Thus 无发, without hair, sounds the same as 无法, without law. When a monk holds an umbrella, it shields him from the sky, 天, above him, which also signifies Heaven or Providence. 无法无天 means running wild and defying all laws human and divine.

 

27:和尚的脑袋——没法(发)
hé shàng de nǎo dài——méi fǎ(fā)
A monk’s head – with no hair (no way out).

 

这是一个谐音的歇后语。和尚不留头发,所以是没发。法与发同音,没发变成没法。
没法的意思是没有办法,没有门路。

 

This is also a pun. A monk’s head is without hair, 发, a similar sound to 法 which also means method or way. Thus 没发, with no hair, becomes 没法, meaning no way out, or being able to do nothing about a situation.

 

28:黄连树下弹琴——苦中作乐
huáng lián shù xià dàn qín——kǔ zhōng zuò lè
Playing the zither under a Chinese pistache tree – seeking happiness from bitterness.

 

黄连是一种非常苦的中草药。弹琴又是一件非常快乐的事情。在黄连树下弹琴,苦中取乐,形成有趣的对比。注意汉语中苦有苦味和痛苦的两个意义。

苦中作乐的意思是在困苦的环境中寻找快乐。

 

The rhizome of Chinese goldthread which grows on Chinese pistache tree is an extremely bitter medicine, while palying the instrument under such a tree makes an interesting contrast between bitterness and happiness. Note that 苦, bitter, can also mean pain. 苦中作乐 means seeking happiness and pleasure in an adverse and painful environment.

 

29:黄鼠狼单咬病鸭子——该倒霉
huáng shǔ láng dān yǎo bìng yā zǐ——gāi dǎo méi
A sick duck bitten by a weasel – more bad luck.
鸭子病了,已经不幸,偏偏又给黄鼠狼咬了,真该它倒霉。

 

这条歇后语用来比喻灾难偏偏落到不幸者头上。

 

When a duck unfortunately gets sick, and then is caught by a weasel, the duck is really down on its luck. This idiom describes someone who has already suffered a misfortune and then meets another disaster.

 

30:黄鼠狼给鸡拜年——没安好心
huáng shǔ láng gěi jī bài nián——méi ān hǎo xīn

 

黄鼠狼又叫黄鼬,白天睡觉,晚上出来活动,常常危害鸡鸭等家禽。黄鼠狼明明想把鸡吃掉,却装作给鸡拜年,这显然是不怀好意。
这个歇后语比喻表面上亲热和善,实际上居心险恶。

 

The weasel usually sleeps during the day and goes out at night, praying on chickens, ducks and the like. So if a weasel pays a hen a New Year call, obviously it has a hidden motive. This idiom is used to describe a hypocrite, who seems kind and sincere but is actually malignant and vicious.

 

31:火烧眉毛——顾眼前
huǒ shāo méi máo——gù yǎn qián
Eyebrows on fire – concentrate on immediate matters.

 

眉毛就在眼睛的上面,紧挨着眼睛。眉毛失火了,眼睛就很危险了。
这个歇后语用来比喻情况非常紧迫,必须先解决当前的问题,其他事暂时放在一边。也比喻眼光短浅,只顾眼前,不顾将来。
Since the eyebrows are immediately above the eyes, when eyebrows are on fire, the eyes are in immediate danger. 眼前, before or above the eyes, also means right now, at present. This idiom is used when the circumstances have become desperately urgent and one must solve the most pressing problem, leaving aside other, less-important business. Sometimes it can also refer to shortsightedness, i.e. paying attention only to the present, without any consideration for the future.

 

32:鸡蛋里挑骨头——故意找错
jī dàn lǐ tiāo gǔ tóu——gù yì zhǎo cuò
Picking bones from eggs – finding fault deliberately.

 

鸡蛋里面本来没有骨头的,有人偏要在鸡蛋里挑出一块骨头来,这意味着什么呢?
这个歇后语用来比喻挑剔别人的缺点和错误,也就是无中生有,硬挑毛病。

 

Someone who tries to pick bones from an egg is trying to find something which is not there. This allegory refers to someone who is hypercritical and likes to fabricate something out of nothing.

 

33:姜太公钓鱼——愿者上钩
jiāng tài gōng diào yú——yuàn zhě shàng gōu
A fish jumping to Jiang Taigong’s hookless and baitless line – a willing victim.

 

中国周朝初年,有个叫姜子牙的人,隐居在陕西的渭水河边几十年,常用无诱饵的直钩在水边钓鱼。姜子牙的目的不在钓鱼,而是希望有人请他出去,施展他的政治抱负。后来在他年纪很老的时候,终于实现了自己的理想。人们称他为姜太公。
愿者上钩用来比喻心甘情愿地去做某件事情。

 

In the first years of the Zhou Dynasty, a hermit, Jiang Ziya, was often seen fishing in the River Wei in Shanxi Province. What was peculiar about him was that his line was hookless and baitless, for he was simply waiting to be invited to take an official post. This ambition was finally realized in his old age, and he was respectfully addressed as Jiang Taigong. This saying refers to someone who willingly plays into other people’s hands and, more often than not, become a victim.

 

34:脚底上擦油——溜了
jiǎo dǐ shàng cā yóu——liū le
Putting grease onto one’s soles – to slip away.

 

动词溜有两个意思:一个是滑行,另一个是偷偷地走开。脚底擦了油,走起路来很滑,所以说是溜了,这里是第一个意思。
运用的时候采用第二个意思,比喻有人遇到困难的事或对自己不利的事,就采取溜的办法。即偷偷地走开或不声不响地离开。

 

The character 溜 has two meanings: to slide and to sneak off. Grease on one’s soles makes one liable to slip. But it is the second meaning that the pun is aimed at, i.e. when someone meets with difficulies or is caught in an unfavorable situation, he tends to slip away.

 

35:井里的蛤蟆——没见过大天
jǐng lǐ de há mà——méi jiàn guò dà tiān
A frog in a well – never having seen the whole sky.

 

居住在井里的蛤蟆,没法跳出水井,只能看到井口那么大的一点天空,不知道天空到底有多大。
这个歇后语用来讽刺那些眼光狭小,见识有限的人。

 

A frog living in a well can only see the part of the sky framed by the mouth of the well. This idiom is used to ridicule short-sighted and narrow-minded people.

 

36:孔夫子搬家——净是书(输)
kǒng fū zǐ bān jiā——jìng shì shū(shū)
Confucius moves house – nothing but books (always lose).

 

这是一个谐音歇后语。孔夫子使中国儒家学说的创始人。人们认为他最有学问,家中的书当然很多。
孔夫子搬家,搬的都是书。输和书是谐音,净是书变成净是输。

 

Confucius, the founder of the Confucian school, was considered the most learned scholar in ancient China, so there must have been a great number of books in his home. When he moved house, what he took with him was probably mostly books. 书, book, however, sounds the same as 输, to lose. This pun means always losing out.

 

37:快刀打豆腐——两面光
kuài dāo dǎ dòu fǔ——liǎng miàn guāng
Bean curd cut with a sharp knife – smooth on both sides.

 

用一把锋利的刀(快刀)劈开豆腐,劈开的两个面都是光光滑滑的。这就是两面光。
两面光是处事圆滑的一种表现。

 

When a sharp knife is used to cut bean curd, the two sides left after the cut will both look very smooth. 两面光 is a common saying, meaning trying to please both parties, or being slick and sly.

 

38:癞蛤蟆打哈欠——好大口气
lài há mà dǎ hā qiàn——hǎo dà kǒu qì
A toad yawns – a gaping mouth (talking big).

 

癞蛤蟆就是蟾蜍,他本来就有张大嘴巴,在打哈欠的时候,他的嘴巴更显得大了。
好大口气用来讽刺喜欢说大话,吹牛皮的人。

 

A toad has a huge mouth. When it yawns, its mouth becomes even bigger. 好大口气 is often cited to ridicule a boastful person.

 

39:癞蛤蟆想吃天鹅肉——痴心妄想

 

lài há mà xiǎng chī tiān é ròu——chī xīn wàng xiǎng
A toad craving for swan’s flesh – an impractical dream.

 

又美丽又高雅的天鹅在空中飞,又丑陋又笨拙的癞蛤蟆在地上爬。癞蛤蟆忽然想起要是能吃到天鹅的肉,那该多好啊。但这是实现不了的痴心和妄想。
这个歇后语用来讥讽某些人不求实际的过高愿望。

 

The swan, so beautiful and refined, flies high in the sky, while the toad, so ugly and awkward, can only crawl on the earth. It would be hopelessly impractical for a toad to yearn for a taste of swan’s flesh. This is a very common saying, used to mock wishful thinking or impractical plans.

 

40:老虎带佛珠——假装善人
lǎo hǔ dài fó zhū——jiǎ zhuāng shàn rén
A tiger wearing a monk’s beads – a vicious person pretending to be benevolent.

 

佛珠是佛教徒戴在脖子上,念经时用以计算次数的成串珠子。一贯吃人的老虎居然带上佛珠,装扮起善人的模样来了。
这个歇后语用来比喻坏人装成好人,或假发慈悲。

 

How can a carnivore like a tiger become a vegetarian like a monk simply by wearing prayer beads round its neck? This expression is used to allude to people who pretend to be philanthropists but who are actually just the opposite, or a person pretending to be kind and benevolent.

 

41:老虎的屁股——摸不得
lǎo hǔ de pì gǔ——mō bù dé
The buttocks of a tiger – cannot be touched.

 

老虎是一种猛兽,惹了他是要吃人的。摸老虎的屁股去激怒他,是不会有好下场的。
这个歇后语常用来比喻某些人依仗权势,作威作福;或者某人很厉害,别人一点也触犯不得。

 

Touching the buttocks of a tiger is a very dangerous act. This common saying is used to describe someone with power and position who rides roughshod over the people, or someone who is too tyrannical to allow any comment or criticism of his actions.

 

42:老虎嘴上拔胡子——找死
lǎo hǔ zuǐ shàng bá hú zǐ——zhǎo sǐ
Pulling a tiger’s whiskers – only to court death.

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到老虎嘴上去拔胡子,很可能被老虎吃掉,是一件十分危险的事。
这个歇后语用来比喻冒极大危险去触犯强者。

 

If one pulls a tiger’s whiskers one may end up inside the animal’s mouth. This idiom means taking a great risk by offending an authority or someone much more powerful than oneself.

 

43:老鼠掉进书箱里——咬文嚼字
lǎo shǔ diào jìn shū xiāng lǐ——yǎo wén jiáo zì
A mouse in a bookcase – chewing up the pages.

 

老鼠的牙齿总是不停地咬东西,老鼠掉进书箱里,咬的都是书本,所以说它咬文嚼字。
咬文嚼字多用来讥笑那些故意卖弄自己学问的人。

 

If a mouse gets into a bookcase, what else can it do besides nibbling at the books? This phrase is mostly used sarcastically to ridicule a pedant who is over-fastidious about wording but fails to grasp the essence of a text. Sometimes it refers to someone who parades his vocabulary just to show off.

 

44:老鼠过街——人人喊打
lǎo shǔ guò jiē——rén rén hǎn dǎ
A rat runs across the street – everyone joins the hue and cry.

 

人们一般都认为老鼠是一个很坏的东西。如果它从大街走过,街上的人都会大声喊:打死它!
这个歇后语语用来比喻害人的东西,人人痛恨。

 

People generally think rats are very bad. If a rat crosses a street, everyone on the street will yells “Kill it!”. This metaphor describes an evildoer who is hated by everyone.

 

45:老鼠爬秤钩——自己称自己

 

lǎo shǔ pá chèng gōu——zì jǐ chēng zì jǐ
A mouse climbs onto a steelyard hook – weighing itself in the balance.

 

秤是测量物体重量的器具。秤杆上的金属钩子,是用来挂所称物体的。老鼠爬到秤钩上,是自己秤自己的重量。称有测量自己的意思,另外还有称赞的意思。自己称自己就是称赞或夸耀自己。
这个歇后语用来比喻没有什么本事的人自我吹嘘。

 

秤, when pronounced in the fourth tone is a balance or steelyard. When a mouse climbs onto a steelyard hook, it is weighing, or in Chinese, 称, itself. 称 , however, can also mean to praise. So 自己称自己 means to chant the praises of oneself. This saying refers to person who has no real ability but likes to boast of his prowess.

 

46:老鼠钻进风箱里——两头受气
lǎo shǔ zuān jìn fēng xiāng lǐ——liǎng tóu shòu qì
A mouse in a bellows – pressed from both ends.

 

风箱是一种压缩空气、产生气流的装置,一头进气,一头出气,用来是炉火旺盛。假如老鼠钻进风箱里,无论跑到哪一头,都处在气流中,所以是两头受气。
受气有受到欺侮的意思。两头受气比喻受到两方面的抱怨或责难。

 

A bellows works by inducting air at one end expelling it from the other. If a mouse gets into it, it cannot escape the pressure of the air, which in Chinese is literally 受气. Here 受气 actually means to be bullied. 两头受气 means being blamed by both sides.

 

47:老鼠钻牛角——此路不通
lǎo shǔ zuān niú jiǎo——cǐ lù bù tōng
A mouse in an ox horn – meeting a dead end.

 

牛角下头粗,上头尖。假如老鼠钻到牛角里,越往里面空间越小,最后没有路可走。
这个歇后语用来比喻某种办法或某种想法在现实中行不通。也比喻陷入绝境,无路可走。

 

Since an ox horn tapers toward the end, a mouse crawling into it will find itself increasingly hampered, until it meets a dead end. This idiom is used to mean that an idea or method is not feasible or someone is in a tight spot with no way out.

 

48:老王卖瓜——自卖自夸
lǎo wáng mài guā——zì mài zì kuā
Lao Wang selling melons – praising his own wares.

 

老王是一个假定的卖瓜的人。老王卖瓜,一边卖,一边夸自己的瓜甜,这是招揽生意,希望有更多的人来买他的瓜。
这个歇后语用来比喻自吹自擂,自己夸耀自己。

 

Lao Wang is the archetypal melon peddler, who naturally boasts how fine his melons are. This idiom is often quoted to describe a person who likes to boast about his own exploits.

 

49:雷公劈豆腐——专找软的欺
léi gōng pī dòu fǔ——zhuān zhǎo ruǎn de qī
The God of Thunder cleaves a bean curd – seeking out the soft and weak to bully.

 

豆腐很软,非常容易劈开。雷公是神话传说专门打雷的神,样子很凶恶。
雷公用雷电劈豆腐,比喻专找老实人或软弱的人欺负。

 

Bean curd is soft and very easy to cut, while the God of Thunder is the epitome of savage power. This idiom implies choosing to bully only the vulnerable and weak.

 

50:聋子的耳朵——摆设
lóng zǐ de ěr duǒ——bǎi shè
A deaf man’s ear – just for show.

 

聋子虽然也长着两只耳朵,可是听不见声音。所以这里两只耳朵就好像一种摆设,不起任何作用。
摆设指那些只能装装样子,而毫无实际价值的东西。这个歇后语用来比喻虚有其表或徒有其名而实际不起作用的人或事。

 

A deaf man cannot hear, despite having ears like other people. In this sense, his ears be regarded as ornaments without any practical use. 摆设 means things merely for show and without pragmatic value. This saying refer to someone or something that has a fine appearance but no substantial content or something that enjoys an undeserved reputation, despite its worthlessness.

 

51:搂草打兔子——顺手
lǒu cǎo dǎ tù zǐ——shùn shǒu
Raking the hay and catching the rabbit – with no extra trouble.

 

兔子藏在草丛里,搂草打兔子时顺手能干的。
指做一件事时,顺便又做了别的事。

 

Since rabbits usually hide themselves in thick grass or hay, when one is raking hay, he may easily catch a rabbit. This expression means while doing something, one can conveniently accomplish something else without extra effort.

 

52:马尾穿豆腐——提不起来
mǎ wěi chuān dòu fǔ——tí bù qǐ lái
Threading bean curd with a hair from a horse’s tail – impossible to lift it up.

 

豆腐很软很嫩,轻轻一碰就会碎裂,用马尾巴上的毛来穿豆腐,是不可能提起来的。
提不起来常用来表示:某人的能力、水平太低,无发提拔或培养;精神或劲头不足、无法提起来。

 

Bean curd is so soft and delicate that it crumbles easily, even at a touch. Therefore, it is impossible to thread bean curd with a hair from horse’s tail. 提不起来 is often used to describe either someone who is too backward to be cultivated and improved or the state of lacking energy and spirit.

 

53:猫哭老鼠——假慈悲
māo kū lǎo shǔ——jiǎ cí bēi
A cat crying over a mouse’s misfortune – sham mercy.

 

猫的本性是要吃老鼠的。假如有一只猫,居然同情和怜悯老鼠的遭遇而落眼泪,那一定是装慈悲了。
这个歇后语用来比喻内心残忍而伪装仁慈善良的人。

 

A cat is a mouse’s natural enemy. If a cat sheds tear at a mouse’s misfortune, it must be only pretending to pity it. This saying is used to describe those who are ruthless inside but put on a show of benevolence.

 

54:门缝里瞅人——把人看扁了
mén féng lǐ chǒu rén——bǎ rén kàn biǎn liǎo
Gazing at someone from behind a slightly opened door – taking a narrow view of a person.

 

瞅是看的意思。把门打开很小一条缝隙,从缝隙中看人,人的形象就显得扁了。
把人看扁了是看不起人或小看别人的意思。

 

瞅 means to look at, to gaze. If one opens a door slightly and gazes at someone through the resultant crack, the attitude is the same as looking down upon that person. This saying is used to mean looking down upon someone.

 

55:木匠戴枷——自作自受
mù jiàng dài jiā——zì zuò zì shòu
A carpenter in a cangue – suffering from one’s own endeavors.

 

枷是过去套在罪犯脖子上的一种刑具,一般用木板制成。木匠自己制作了枷,后来却戴在自己的脖子上,这就是自作自受。
这个歇后语用来比喻自己做错事或坏事,自己去承受不好的后果。

 

A cangue was a kind of instrument of punishment consisting of a heavy wooden board hung round the neck. They were, of course, made by carpenters. This saying is used to mean suffering the unfavorable consequences of one’s own wrongdoing or mistake.

 

56:泥菩萨过河——自身难保
ní pú sà guò hé——zì shēn nán bǎo
A clay Buddha crossing a stream – hardly able to save itself.

 

在人们的心目中,菩萨是拯救危难的神。可是,用泥巴做的菩萨,在过河的时候,一旦进入水里自身就会被河水溶化,哪里还能去保护别人呢?
这个歇后语用来比喻自己都难以保住,不能顾得上帮助别人。

 

Buddha is considered to be the supreme savior. Howerver, a clay statue of Buddha will dissolve if crosses a steam. How can it help others? This saying denotes those who cannot even help themselves, not to mention others.

 

57:螃蟹夹豌豆——连爬带滚
páng xiè jiā wān dòu——lián pá dài gǔn
A crab carrying a pea – crawling and rolling.

 

螃蟹走路时横着爬行。豌豆是又小又圆的东西。螃蟹要夹住豌豆是在不太容易,所以螃蟹夹豌豆的结果只能是一个爬一个滚。
连爬带滚大多用来形容失败后惊恐逃跑的样子。

 

A crab scuttles sideways. It is extremely difficult for a crab to carry a pea, as one is crawling while the other is rolling. This saying is often used to describe those who flee in a panic after being defeated.

 

58:旗杆上挂灯笼——高明

 

qí gān shàng guà dēng lóng——gāo míng
A lantern hung from a flagpole – high and bright.

 

把灯笼挂在很高很高的旗杆上点亮,灯笼又高又明亮。
高和明两个字合起来构成一个新的词高明,用来形容某个人技能高于一般人。

 

A lighted lantern could be both 高 (high) and 明 (bright) when hung from a tall flagpole. 高明 is an expression that means wise, or skilled above average. This saying is used to praise someone who’s done an excellent job.

 

59:骑驴看唱本——走着瞧
qí lǘ kàn chàng běn——zǒu zhe qiáo
Reading a book on donkey back – reading while riding.

 

唱本是刊载曲艺或戏曲唱词的小册子。骑在毛驴的背上看唱本,一边走,一边看。一边走一边看是走着瞧的意思。
走着瞧的实际意思是:事情发展的结果如何,等着以后慢慢看。

 

唱本 is a brochure recording the words of Chinese ballad singing or traditional Chinese opera. Reading such a book while riding a donkey evokes an image of letting matters take their course. 走着瞧 in Chinese means the same as wait and see. The actual meaning is that it takes some time to see the result of the development of some event.

 

60:骑在老虎背上——身不由己
qí zài lǎo hǔ bèi shàng——shēn bù yóu jǐ
Riding a tiger – having no control over oneself.

 

一个人如果骑到了老虎的脊背上,想要下去可就困难了,只好由老虎带着跑,完全失去可自由。
这个歇后语用来比喻受别人控制,由不得自己作主。

 

When one rides a tiger one dare not dismount for fear of being eaten.
This saying is used to describe the situation of being deprived of freedom by exterior forces.

 

61:千里送鹅毛——礼轻情意重
qiān lǐ sòng é máo——lǐ qīng qíng yì zhòng
Travel a thousand miles to bestow a goose feather – a small gift may be a token of profound friendship.

 

千里形容路途遥远。从遥远的地方送来一片鹅毛,东西虽然很轻,但是它代表的情意却很浓重。
这个歇后语用来比喻礼品虽然不多,但表达了送礼人的一片深情厚意。

 

Traveling a long way just to give somebody a goose feather indicates a profound friendship.This saying is used to express that true friendship is not measured in terms of money or expensive gifts.

 

62:青石板上钉钉——不动
qīng shí bǎn shàng dīng dīng——bù dòng
Driving a nail into a stone – impossible to penetrate.

 

前一个钉是动词,后一个钉是名词。在坚硬的石板上钉钉子,钉子是钉不进去的,也就是钉不动。
这个歇后语用来比喻事情发展已成定局,基本上不会再发生变动。

 

The first 钉 is a verb, while the second one is a noun. A nail cannot penetrate a stone slab, no matter how hard one drives it. In Chinese it is called 钉不动, which means that it is impossible to drive a nail into something. The extended meaning of this idiom is that things are already settled and cannot be changed.

 

63:秋后的蚂蚱——蹦跶不了几天了
qiū hòu de mǎ zhà——bèng dá bù liǎo jī tiān le
A grasshopper at the end of autumn – its jumping days are numbered.

 

蚂蚱就是黄虫。蹦跶就是蹦跳的意思。秋天过去,冬天马上就要到了。蚂蚱到了秋后,活命的日子就不长了,所以说它蹦跶不了几天了。
这个歇后语用来比喻离失败或灭亡没有多久了。

 

蚂蚱 means grasshopper. Similar to 蹦跳 in meaning, the English equivalent of 蹦跶 is jump. When winter takes the place of autumn, the grasshopper is also coming to the end of its life. So it is said that the days when it can keep jumping are numbered. This saying describes imminent failure or destruction.

 

64:热锅上的蚂蚁——团团转
rè guō shàng de mǎ yǐ——tuán tuán zhuǎn
A swarm of ants on a hot oven – milling around in a panic.

 

烧得灼热的铁锅上有一群蚂蚁,围着铁锅转来转去,想逃命,又没有办法逃走。
这个歇后语用来比喻陷入困境,走投无路。也用来描述心情焦急、坐立不安的状态。

 

A swarm of ants on a hot oven dash around, with no way out. This saying is used to describe people who are in a blind panic.

 

65:肉包子打狗——有去无回
ròu bāo zǐ dǎ gǒu——yǒu qù wú huí
A meat bun thrown at a dog – by no means retrievable.

 

狗很喜欢吃肉。用肉做的包子打狗,等于给狗送好吃的东西,扔出去当然就回不来了。
这个歇后语用来比喻东西放出去后收不回来。

 

There is no way of getting back a meat bun thrown at a dog in an attempt to drive it away. Something given out but hardly returnable or someone going without coming back is often compared to a meat bun thrown at a dog.

 

66:十五只吊桶打水——七上八下
shí wǔ zhī diào tǒng dǎ shuǐ——qī shàng bā xià
Fifteen buckets to draw water from a well – seven up and eight down.

 

过去没有自来水,用水到井里去提。在桶上绑根绳子吊下井去,水满了后再提上来。设想十五只吊桶轮番提水,七个吊桶上来,八个吊桶放下去。
七上八下也是个成语,常用来描述心神慌乱、不安。

 

In the past, when there was no tap-water, water had to be drawn from well. Only when the full buckets are pulled up can the empty buckets be lowered.

七上八下 is an idiom, which is often used to describe a state of being flurried and restless.

 

67:寿星老上吊——嫌命长
shòu xīng lǎo shàng diào——xián mìng cháng
A person of longevity hangs himself – growing tied of living a long life.

 

寿星就是老人星,民间把他作为长寿的象征,也称为寿星公、寿星老。假如寿星老突然要上吊寻死,大家不禁会议论:这老头子是不是嫌自己活得太长了?
这个歇后语用来比喻自己不知道保重自己的身体和性命,盲目去冒风险或硬打硬拼。

 

寿星, also called 寿星公 or 寿星老, refers to a person of longevity, and is regarded in Chinese culture as a symbol of long life. If a person of longevity tried to hang himself or herself, it would indicate being tired of living. This saying is used to refer to those who take risks blindly or fight recklessly without caring about their own health or lives.

 

68:睡在磨盘上——想转了
shuì zài mó pán shàng——xiǎng zhuǎn liǎo
Sleeping on a millstone – expecting a turn of fortune.

 

这个磨盘就是方言中说的磨,是一种把粮食弄碎的工具,磨盘转动,粮食才能研碎。人睡在磨盘上面,大概也想随着转动了。
想转了的意思是想偏了,想错了;另外也表示想开了,想明白了。

 

磨 is a millstone, used to grind grain into flour. Only when the millstone is turned can the grain be ground. If someone sleeps on a millstone, it indicates that he wants to turn with it. 想转了 implies thinking the wrong way. It may also mean looking on the bright side of things.

 

69:孙猴子的脸——说变就变
sūn hóu zǐ de liǎn——shuō biàn jiù biàn
The Monkey King’s face – unpredictable changes.

 

中国著名神话小说西游记中的孙悟空又称孙猴子,有七十二种变化的本领,只要一念咒语,说变什么就变什么。
这个歇后语用来比喻变化迅速,难以预料。

 

In journey to the West, one of the four major classical Chinese novels, the main character Sun Wukong, also known as the Monkey King, has the power of 72 metamorphoses. This saying is used to describe sudden unpredictable changes.

 

70:太平洋的警察——管的宽
tài píng yáng de jǐng chá——guǎn dí kuān
In charge of the Pacific Ocean – excessive responsibilities.

 

太平洋是世界最大的海洋,广阔无边。假设在太平洋上当警察,管的地方就很宽很宽了。
管得宽是指该管或不需要管的事情也去管,操多余的心。

 

The Pacific is the largest ocean in the world. If a person were put in charge of the Pacific, he would have to govern a vast area too big to control properly. 管得宽 means the same as have one’s finger in every pie.

 

71:太岁头上动土——好大的胆
tài suì tóu shàng dòng tǔ——hǎo dà de dǎn
Digging clay near Taisui – being reckless.

 

太岁是传说中的神名。过去迷信的说法认为太岁之神在地,掘木兴建工程要躲避太岁的方位,否则就要招来祸害。居然在太岁头上动起土来,这不是自找灾祸吗?
太岁头上动土比喻去触犯有权势和强有力的人,胆子不小。

 

Taisui is the name of a god in Chinese mythology. As he lived below the ground, it was important not to dig for clay or engage in construction in his location. Otherwise, one risked disaster. This idiom is used to refer to reckless actions, especially when one risks offending a person of power and influence.

 

72:铁打的公鸡——一毛不拔
tiě dǎ de gōng jī——yī máo bù bá
An iron rooster – not a feather can be pulled out.

 

在公鸡身上拔毛本是很容易的事情,然而要在鉄铸的公鸡身上拔下毛来,就不可能了。一毛不拔是一根毛也拔不下来的意思。
这个歇后语用来比喻一个人非常自私、吝啬,一点财产也不愿意拿出来。

 

It is an easy job to pluck a feather from a live rooster; but it is impossible to do so from one made of iron. This saying refers to someone who is stingy and miserly, or a person who will not lift a finger to help.

 

73:听评书掉眼泪——替古人担忧
tīng píng shū diào yǎn lèi——tì gǔ rén dān yōu
Shedding tears while listening to pingshu – worrying about the ancients.

 

评书是曲艺的一种,讲的大多是古代的故事。听评书听到悲惨的地方,流下眼泪来,替故事里的人物着急、担忧。这个歇后语用来比喻对毫不相干的人或事,产生不必要的忧虑。

 

Pingshu is a traditional Chinese story-telling art form. The themes are usually ancient ones. Shedding tears while listening to the sad part really shows great concern and worry about the ancients – the characters in the story. This saying refers to unnecessary worries about persons or irrelevant things.

 

74:秃子跟着月亮走——沾光
tū zǐ gēn zhe yuè liàng zǒu——zhān guāng
A bald head shines in the moonlight – reflected glory.

 

秃子指头发掉光的人。秃子在月亮下面走路,月亮的光照到秃子头上,秃子的头上也发亮了,是沾了月亮的光。
这个歇后语用来比喻凭借别人或某种事物而得到好处。

 

秃子 means a person with a bald head. In the moonlight, a bald man’s head shines. The bald man borrows the natural light of the moon. This saying implies gaining benefit from association with somebody or something.

 

75:秃子头上的虱子——明摆着
tū zǐ tóu shàng de shī zǐ——míng bǎi zhuó
A louse on a bald head – too obvious.

 

秃子的头上光光的,一根头发也没有。如果秃子头上有虱子,一眼就可以看到,因为它很明显地摆在那里。
明摆着的意思是问题或事情很明显。

 

Since there is no hair on a bald, a louse on it must be very conspicuous. 明摆着 means obvious, clear, plain.

 

76:兔子的尾巴——长不了
tù zǐ de wěi bā——cháng bù liǎo
A hare’s tail – cannot be too long.

 

兔子的尾巴生来就很短,不可能再长长了。
这个歇后语用来比喻时间不会太长了。

 

A hare is born with a short tail, which cannot grow long. With the implication of another meaning of 长 – length of time, this saying implies that evildoers will soon meet their doom.

 

77:脱裤子放屁——多此一举
tuō kù zǐ fàng pì——duō cǐ yī jǔ
Taking off the pants to break wind – make an unnecessary move.

 

放屁不需要脱裤子。如果先把裤子脱掉,再去放屁,当然不算错,只是多费了一道手续,令人感到可笑。
这个歇后语用来比喻多此一举,自找麻烦。

 

To break wind, it is unnecessary to take off the lower garments. This saying refers to making an unnecessary fuss over a simple matter.

 

78:外甥打灯笼——照旧(舅)
wài shēng dǎ dēng lóng——zhào jiù(jiù)
The nephew holds a lantern for his uncle – things stay unchanged.

 

这是一个谐音的歇后语。舅和外甥是亲戚称呼。一个孩子,称他母亲的哥哥或弟弟为舅,舅舅则把他叫外甥。外甥打着灯笼给舅舅照明引路。由于旧与舅同音,照舅变成照旧。
照旧的意思是:仍旧保持从前的样子,没有一点变化。

 

This is a pun. Maternal uncle is 舅, while the son of one’s sister is 外甥. Since 舅 is pronunced the same as 旧, hold a lantern for his uncle 照舅 sounds like 照旧, which means stay unchanged, or remain as usual. This saying is used to describe someone or something that remains the same.

 

79:王八吃称砣——铁了心
wáng bā chī chēng tuó——tiě liǎo xīn
A tortoise swallowing a weight – get an iron heart.

 

王八就是乌龟的俗称。秤砣是称东西时用来使称平衡的金属锥,用铁铸成。 假设一只王八把秤砣吞到肚子里,连心也变成铁的了。
铁了心比喻主意已定,很难改变;或比喻意志坚定,毫不动摇。
王八 is an alternative vulgar name for a tortoise. 秤砣 is the iron weight sliding along the arm of a steelyard. If a tortoise swallowed a weight, he would feel as though he had got an iron heart. 铁了心 means having made up one’s mind or having an iron will.

 

80:蚊子叮菩萨——认错人了
wén zǐ dīng pú sà——rèn cuò rén liǎo
A mosquito bites a clay idol – mistaken identity.

 

蚊子飞到庙里,看见一尊菩萨坐在那里,飞过去叮他的血。这才发现菩萨是泥做的,自己错把他当成活人了。
这个歇后语用来比喻弄错认了。

 

A mosquito flies into a temple and tries to bite a clay idol, thinking that it is a living person. This saying refers to the wrong identification of someone.

 

81:乌龟吃萤火虫——心里明白
wū guī chī yíng huǒ chóng——xīn lǐ míng bái
A tortoise which has swallowed a firefly – bright inside.

 

乌龟全身都是黑的,嘴里一般也不声不响。萤火虫的尾端能够发光。设想一只乌龟把萤火虫吞了下去,肚子里面也就明亮起来了。
这个歇后语用来比喻嘴里不说,心中明白,也就是心中有数的意思。

 

A tortoise is dark all over, and is always silent. If a tortoise swallowed a firefly it would be bright inside. This saying is used to describe someone who knows something very well in his heart but remains silent about it.

 

82:瞎子戴眼镜——多此一举
xiā zǐ dài yǎn jìng——duō cǐ yī jǔ
A blind man putting on glasses – an unnecessary action.

 

瞎子的眼睛看不见,戴上眼镜还是看不见。所以瞎子戴眼镜,完全是多余的举动。
这个歇后语用来比喻做多余而不必要的事情。

 

It is completely unnecessary for a blind man to wear glasses, since he cannot see anything. This saying refers to doing something superfluous and unnecessary.

 

83:瞎子点灯——白费蜡
xiā zǐ diǎn dēng——bái fèi là
A blind man lighting a candle – wasting wax.

 

蜡烛是用来照明的。瞎子眼睛看不见,用蜡烛点上灯,仍然什么也看不见,只是白白地浪费了蜡烛。
这个歇后语用来比喻白费力气,一点效果也没有。

 

Even though a blind man lights a candle in the dark he still cannot see anything; he is simply wasting the wax of the candle. This saying indicates that someone expends his energy on something to no avail.

 

84:虾子过河——谦虚(牵须)
xiā zǐ guò hé——qiān xū(qiān xū)
A shrimp cross a river – modesty.

 

这是一个谐音的歇后语。虾子就是虾的方言。虾的头上有短触角各一对,口语叫虾须。虾过河的时候,虾须漂浮在水面上,仿佛像两根绳子牵着虾向前游。谦虚与牵须同音,所以牵须变成谦虚。
谦虚的意思是虚心,不自满,肯接受别人的批评和建议。

 

This is a pun. 虾子, the dialectal name for shrimp, has feelers on its head that look like two ropes pulling it forward while the shrimp is swimming in the water. The Chinese words for modest 谦虚 and for pull feelers 牵须 have the same pronunciation. This saying is used to praise someone for being modest.

 

85:瞎子磨刀——快了
xiā zǐ mó dāo——kuài le
A blind man sharpening a knife – not far to go.

 

瞎子看不见,在磨刀的时候,磨了一会儿,就用手试一试刀刃,口里不住地说:快了快了!快有锋利和迅速两个意思。这里是锋利的意思。
这个歇后语实际表示的意思是,事情很快就要完成,或者目的地很快就要到达了。

 

When a blind man is sharpening a knife, once in a while he has to stop to test the blade with his finger and say repeatedly: 快了快了, which could mean sharp or soon. 快了 here means soon, before long, not much left. It is used when indicating that a task will soon be done, or a goal will soon be accomplished.

 

86:小葱拌豆腐——一清二白
xiǎo cōng bàn dòu fǔ——yī qīng èr bái
Shallot mixed with bean curd – one green and one white.

 

这是一个谐音歇后语。小葱是青青的,豆腐是白白的。用小葱拌豆腐,做成一道菜,有青又有白,好看又好吃。青与白同音,一青二白成了一清二白。
一清二白也是个成语,有两个意思:清清楚楚,毫不含糊;一个人很纯洁,没有污点。

 

This is a pun. Shallots are green, while bean curd is white. The dish called shallot mixed with bean curd is both tasty and pleasant to look at – green contrasted with white. The 青meaning green and 清 meaning innocent have the same pronunciation. Therefore, 一青二白 becomes 一清二白, which means completely innocent or clear-cut, explicit, plain.

 

87:小孩放鞭炮——又爱又怕
xiǎo hái fàng biān páo——yòu ài yòu pà
Kids letting off firecrackers – feeling both joy and fear.

 

鞭炮又叫爆竹,是小孩非常喜欢的东西。但鞭炮放起来爆炸的声音很响,而且容易烧伤手和脸,所以小孩又爱它又怕它。
这个歇后语用来描述对人或对物又喜欢又害怕的矛盾心理。

 

鞭炮, also called 爆竹, means firecracker. Children like to let off firecracker. However, they know that can be burned or otherwise injured. So when they let them off they feel both joy and fear. This saying is used to describe a person’s conflicting psychological state of feeling both joy and fear at the same time.

 

88:小和尚念经——有口无心
xiǎo hé shàng niàn jīng——yǒu kǒu wú xīn
An apprentice monk reciting scriptures – saying what one does not mean.

 

小和尚初入佛门,天天跟着老和尚念经,却不懂念的经文是什么意思,一点也不动心。
有口无心的意思是:只是嘴上说说,并没有把它放在心里。

 

An apprentice monk who has just started to practice Buddhism recites scriptures with the older monks every day, but does not understand what he is saying. His heart is not moved at all. This saying means speaking empty words or making insincere statements.

 

89:秀才遇见兵——有理说不清
xiù cái yù jiàn bīng——yǒu lǐ shuō bù qīng
A scholar meeting a warrior – unable to vindicate oneself against an unreasonable opponent.

 

过去,人们把秀才看做是很有学问的读书人,而当兵的往往是蛮横不讲理。秀才遇见兵,虽然有一肚子的道理,但总是说不清楚的。
这个歇后语比喻对蛮横不讲理的人,是无法和他讲理的。

 

In the past a scholar was considered to be educated and cultured, while a warrior was regarded as rude and unreasonable. If a dispute arose between a scholar and a warrior, the scholar would find it hard to vindicate himself in spite of having justice on his side. This saying implies that there is no reasoning with an unreasonable person.

 

90:哑巴吃黄连——有苦说不出
yǎ bā chī huáng lián——yǒu kǔ shuō bù chū
A dumb person tasting bitter herbs – unable to express bitter feelings.

 

黄连是一种非常苦的中药。哑巴吃了黄连,感到味道很苦,嘴里却说不出来。
在汉语中,苦有两个意思:一是味道苦,一是痛苦。这里的有苦说不出实际是指心中的痛苦,但嘴里说不出来,或不便说出来。

 

Huanglian, the rhizome of Chinese gold thread, is used in traditional Chinese medicine. It tastes quite bitter. When a dumb person tastes it, he senses the bitter taste but cannot express how he feels. 苦 can mean either bitter, pain or suffering. Here in this saying, 苦 refers to the latter. It means to suffer in silence, or be unable to communicate one’s suffering.

 

91:哑巴吃饺子——心里有数
yǎ bā chī jiǎo zǐ——xīn lǐ yǒu shù
A mute person eating jiaozi – knowing how many he has eaten.

 

哑巴吃饺子的时候,吃了多少饺子,嘴里虽然说不出来,但心里总是有个数目的。
心里有数的意思是:对某一种事情嘴上虽然不说,但是心里十分明白。

 

When a mute person eats jiaozi (dumplings), he knows how many he has eaten, even though he cannot speak. 心里有数 means knowing the situation quite well, yet saying nothing.

 

92:阎王爷出告示——鬼话连篇
yán wáng yé chū gào shì——guǐ huà lián piān
The King of Hell’s announcement – a whole series of lies.

 

佛教称地狱的神叫阎王或阎王爷。阎王爷贴出告示,告示上讲的都是鬼的事情,用的都是鬼的词语,所以说是鬼话连篇。
鬼话连篇比喻讲的全是骗人的假话、谎话。

 

In Buddhism the King of Hell is called 阎王 Yanwang or 阎王爷 Yanwangye. An announcement by Yanwang should be all about ghosts’ affairs and be written in ghosts’ language. However, this saying is not really about ghosts, but means a pack of lies.

 

93:张飞穿针——粗中有细
zhāng fēi chuān zhēn——cū zhōng yǒu xì
Zhang Fei threading a needle – subtle in one’s rough ways.

 

中国古代的三国时代,蜀国有名大将叫张飞。张飞以身材魁梧、举止粗鲁而闻名。粗鲁的张飞却把细细的丝线穿过小小的针眼里,形成粗和细的有趣对比。
粗中有细指一个人在粗鲁之中还有精细的地方。

 

In the Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China, there was a general in the State of Shu called Zhang Fei, who was known for his stalwart appearance and rough and straightforward character. The image of him threading a needle is one of sharp contrast between subtlety and roughness. 粗中有细 means being somewhat refined in one’s rough ways.

 

94:丈二金刚——摸不着头脑
zhàng èr jīn gāng——mō bù zháo tóu nǎo
The giant monk’s head – cannot be reached.

 

佛教称金刚是佛主的卫士,身高一丈二尺。身材这么高大的金刚,一般人怎么能摸得着他的头呢?

 

摸不着头脑的意思是:不了解情况,不清楚底细,不知道缘由等。
金刚 was one of Buddha’s warrior attendants. How could you touch his head if he were a giant? The extended meaning of 摸不着头脑 is “be in the dark, be completely at a loss”.

 

95:芝麻开花——节节高
zhī má kāi huā——jié jié gāo
Sesame in bloom – rising steadily.

 

芝麻是一种一年生的草本植物,子实可以榨油。芝麻开花有一个特点:茎往上面长一节,开一层花。茎不断地长,花不断地开。
这个歇后语用来比喻生活水平逐步提高;也比喻人的思想、学习、技能等一天比一天进步。

 

Sesame is a plant, the seeds of which produce oil. When sesame is in bloom, each flower grows higher than the last, and the stem rises joint by joint. The flowers grow continuously as the stem rises. This saying is used to describe either ever-rising living standards or making steady progress in thought, studies or skills.

 

96:周瑜打黄盖——一个愿打,一个愿挨
zhōu yú dǎ huáng gài——yī gè yuàn dǎ,yī gè yuàn āi
Zhou Yu beats Huang Gai – the punishment is appropriately given by one and willingly accepted by the other.

 

中国古代的三国时代,吴国和蜀国联合抗曹操的魏国,在一次大战中,为了火攻曹操的军营,吴国大将黄盖向主帅献了苦肉计,让周瑜把他打得皮开肉绽,然后到曹操那里去假投降,以便从内部攻破曹营。
这个歇后语比喻在一件事情或一笔交易中双方都是心甘情愿的。

 

In the Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China, the State of Wu was allied with Shu against Wei, which was ruled by Cao Cao. General Huang Gai of Wu offered to have himself tortured by the commanding general Zhou Yu and then flee to Cao Cao, pretending to have gone to the latter’s side. This saying is used to indicate that both parties are in accord on a matter of business.

 

97:猪八戒吃人参果——全不知滋味
zhū bājiè chī rénshēn guǒ —— quán bùzhī zīwèi
Zhu Bajie eating ginseng – not knowing the taste at all.

 

西游记中有段描写猪八戒吃人参果的故事。故事说:猪八戒偷了镇元大仙种的人参果,由于贪嘴好吃,连人参果的滋味也没有尝到,就囫囵吐下去了。
这个歇后语比喻不知道食物的滋味和不知道东西的价值。

 

Zhu Bajie is one of the chief characters in the novel Journey to the West. He used to be a Divine General of Heaven but was punished and reincarnated with the spirit of a pig. In the novel, there is a story about Zhu Bajie eating ginseng. Zhu Bajie, who is gluttonous, swallows up all the ginseng he stole from an immortal’s orchard without knowing the taste of it. This saying means either not appreciating the taste of food or not knowing the value of something.

 

98:猪八戒照镜子——里外不是人
zhū bā jiè zhào jìngzǐ——lǐ wài bù shì rén
Zhu Bajie looking at himself in a mirror – blamed everywhere.

 

猪八戒长着大耳朵、长嘴巴、猪头人身,面目丑恶难看。猪八戒拿着镜子照自己,镜子里面和外面都不是人的模样。
这个歇后语比喻里外上下都不讨好,夹在中间受气;或比喻处境困难,到处受到埋怨。

 

Zhu Bajie is very ugly, with a pig’s head and a human body. If he look at himself in a mirror, he could find that he was not like a human being either inside or outside the mirror. The extended meaning of this saying is being bullied at home and outside, or being blamed everywhere.

 

99:竹篮打水——一场空
zhú lán dǎ shuǐ——yī cháng kōng
Drawing water with a bamboo basket – achieving nothing.
竹篮子有许多小洞,用来打水,水都漏掉了,篮子里总是空空的。
这个歇后语用来比喻希望和努力完全落空,费了很大的劲,最后一无所获。

 

It is no use trying to draw water with a basket, since it has cracks, and does not allow water to remain in it. This saying is used to describe achieving nothing in the end, though one has tried very hard.

 

100:啄木鸟找食——全凭嘴
zhuó mù niǎo zhǎo shí——quán píng zuǐ
Drawing water with a bamboo basket – achieving nothing.

 

啄木鸟吃食,全靠自己坚硬的嘴,啄开树皮,捕捉洞里的虫子。
这个歇后语用来讽刺某种人不踏踏实实地工作,只凭耍嘴皮、说漂亮话过日子。

 

A woodpecker has to peck holes in trees with its hard beak to find insects to eat. This saying is used to describe a type of person who merely chatters idly, and never works in a down-to-earth way. It can also mean being addicted to fine words or paying lip service.

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尚、本ブログではシリーズもので中国語の慣用表現の紹介をしている他、中国語学習を始める方には、動詞フォーカス中国語入門を推奨しております。今までにない観点で日本語の特徴を捉えた上で、開発された中国語教材です。詳細は学習効果が高い中国語教材おすすめランキング:中国語学習で迷ったらこれを買おう!初級・中級者篇 をご確認下さい。

 

 

 

 

 

 

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